AJACM

2008 Volume 3 Issue 2 Abstracts

Acupuncture in Drug and Alcohol Withdrawal at the Community Residential Withdrawal Unit, Footscray Hospital, Melbourne (Ryan, McDonough, Berryman, Kotevski and Jenkin)

Shenzhi Theory: A Clinical Model of the Mind and Mental Illness in Chinese Medicine (Garvey and Qu)

Using the Nominal Group Technique to Evaluate a Chinese Medicine Basic Theory Course for Medical Doctors: A Case Study (Li, Yang, Xue and Wang)

Acupuncture for the Treatment of Normal Transit Constipation: A Case Report (Kremer and Deare)


Ryan D, McDonough M, Berryman C, Kotevski D, Jenkin K. Acupuncture in drug and alcohol withdrawal at the Community Residential Withdrawal Unit, Footscray Hospital, Melbourne. Aust J Acupunct Chin Med 2008;3(2):5-12.
Background: Acupuncture has been offered as an adjunct therapy in drug and alcohol withdrawal at the Community Residential Withdrawal Unit (CRWU), Western Hospital, Footscray, since 1996. Anecdotal reports from staff and clients indicate that acupuncture is a useful treatment approach, and, to investigate more thoroughly, a collaborative study was undertaken in 2007. Aims: To identify and explore client and staff perceptions of the benefits/limitations of acupuncture in the CRWU program. Design: Semi-structured interviews were used to capture data that would provide understanding of client and staff experiences of acupuncture. The data were analysed qualitatively to identify major themes. Participant selection criteria: Consenting in-patient clients at CRWU aged 18 years or over who had acupuncture during the period of the study, plus all clinical staff at CRWU who consented to participate in the study. Data analysis: Client and staff interview data were analysed using thematic content analysis to identify major themes and insights that related to the aims of the study. A comparative analysis of client and staff views, based on the two sets of data, was also undertaken to explore convergences and divergences of views. Results: The study found that there was a strong consensus amongst clients and staff interviewed that acupuncture was a beneficial therapy that had a relaxing effect with various 'flow-on' benefits such as decrease in anxiety and reduction of pain. Conclusion: Drug and alcohol treatment guidelines support the view that matching treatment approaches to individuals is critical to the success of returning clients to the community. It is also acknowledged that a combination of treatment regimes is a best-practice approach. This study reveals that staff and clients at CRWU believe that acupuncture is a beneficial non-pharmacotherapeutic approach in the treatment of drug and alcohol dependency.
KEYWORDS: acupuncture, drug and alcohol, detox, withdrawal.

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Garvey M, Qu LF. Shenzhi theory: a clinical model of the mind and mental illness in Chinese medicine. Aust J Acupunct Chin Med 2008;3(2):13-17.
The term shenzhi means 'spirit-mind' and refers to the five spirits (shen, hun, po, yi, zhi) of early Chinese medical theorising. The theory of shenzhi provides a conceptual model that helps to explain Chinese medicine's perspective on human consciousness and body-mind physiology. Each of the five spirits (wushen) governs certain aspects of mentality and is closely related to sensory faculties, body tissues, visceral systems, and physiological substances. Orderly, integrated wushen activities provide the human organism with its distinctive array of mental and sensory abilities including intelligence, insight, attention, and memory. When these physiological activities and relationships are disrupted, a variety of common or more serious disorders may result. Broadly speaking, they are 'mind' or 'mental' disorders - shenzhi bing. We discuss some of these to illustrate the diagnostic relevance of shenzhi theory for the Chinese medical clinic today. Analysis of their signs and symptoms allows the practitioner to identify disordered wushen activities. A brief discussion of psychological classifications, pathomechanisms and treatment examples is included to help link the theory to contemporary clinical presentations.
KEYWORDS: Chinese medicine, consciousness, diagnosis, mental disorders, mind, neurosis, perception, physiology, psychology, psychosis.

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Li XL, Yang AWH, Xue CCL, Wang QG. Using the nominal group technique to evaluate a Chinese medicine basic theory course for medical doctors: a case study. Aust J Acupunct Chin Med 2008;3(2):18-21.
Aims: To evaluate the course of Chinese Medicine Basic Theory (CMBT) delivered to medical doctors for course improvement using an established Nominal Group Technique (NGT). Methods: 14 Iranian students with medical backgrounds at Beijing University of Chinese Medicine completed the two NGT sessions. Results: 20 prioritised items were produced. Of these, clinical relevance, quality of teaching and learning activities and English language proficiency were considered the most important areas. Conclusion: The quality of the CMBT course might be improved when it is implemented with clinically relevant content knowledge, constructively aligned teaching and learning activities with quality delivery in the classroom.
KEYWORDS: nominal group technique, course evaluation, traditional Chinese medicine, education.

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Kremer JZ, Deare JC. Acupuncture for the treatment of normal transit constipation: a case report. Aust J Acupunct Chin Med 2008;3(2):22-27.
Constipation has a high level of prevalence among older females in developed countries like Australia. This case report documents the acupuncture treatment of an 85-year-old female who presented to a student acupuncture clinic with the chief complaint of chronic constipation. The patient had experienced fifteen years of restricted bowel movements, with associated straining and sensation of incomplete evacuation. Her condition had not benefited substantially from Western medicine or consultation with a nutritionist. Secondary symptoms/complaints included neck pain, lower back pain, deteriorating eyesight and headache. Acupuncture was the primary intervention utilised in accordance with a number of classic point formulae, in combination with patient education to eliminate the herbal supplement and address dietary concerns. After weekly acupuncture treatments over eight weeks, the patient reported no longer experiencing constipation and this effect had lasted up until the time of writing. Similar results were attained for each of the patient's secondary complaints.
KEYWORDS: chronic constipation, normal transit constipation, neck injury, headache, purgatives, acupuncture, moxibustion.

[Back to Top]

Acupuncture in Drug and Alcohol Withdrawal at the Community Residential Withdrawal Unit, Footscray Hospital, Melbourne (Ryan, McDonough, Berryman, Kotevski and Jenkin)

Shenzhi Theory: A Clinical Model of the Mind and Mental Illness in Chinese Medicine (Garvey and Qu)

Using the Nominal Group Technique to Evaluate a Chinese Medicine Basic Theory Course for Medical Doctors: A Case Study (Li, Yang, Xue and Wang)

Acupuncture for the Treatment of Normal Transit Constipation: A Case Report (Kremer and Deare)


Ryan D, McDonough M, Berryman C, Kotevski D, Jenkin K. Acupuncture in drug and alcohol withdrawal at the Community Residential Withdrawal Unit, Footscray Hospital, Melbourne. Aust J Acupunct Chin Med 2008;3(2):5-12.
Background: Acupuncture has been offered as an adjunct therapy in drug and alcohol withdrawal at the Community Residential Withdrawal Unit (CRWU), Western Hospital, Footscray, since 1996. Anecdotal reports from staff and clients indicate that acupuncture is a useful treatment approach, and, to investigate more thoroughly, a collaborative study was undertaken in 2007. Aims: To identify and explore client and staff perceptions of the benefits/limitations of acupuncture in the CRWU program. Design: Semi-structured interviews were used to capture data that would provide understanding of client and staff experiences of acupuncture. The data were analysed qualitatively to identify major themes. Participant selection criteria: Consenting in-patient clients at CRWU aged 18 years or over who had acupuncture during the period of the study, plus all clinical staff at CRWU who consented to participate in the study. Data analysis: Client and staff interview data were analysed using thematic content analysis to identify major themes and insights that related to the aims of the study. A comparative analysis of client and staff views, based on the two sets of data, was also undertaken to explore convergences and divergences of views. Results: The study found that there was a strong consensus amongst clients and staff interviewed that acupuncture was a beneficial therapy that had a relaxing effect with various 'flow-on' benefits such as decrease in anxiety and reduction of pain. Conclusion: Drug and alcohol treatment guidelines support the view that matching treatment approaches to individuals is critical to the success of returning clients to the community. It is also acknowledged that a combination of treatment regimes is a best-practice approach. This study reveals that staff and clients at CRWU believe that acupuncture is a beneficial non-pharmacotherapeutic approach in the treatment of drug and alcohol dependency.
KEYWORDS: acupuncture, drug and alcohol, detox, withdrawal.

[Back to Top]

Garvey M, Qu LF. Shenzhi theory: a clinical model of the mind and mental illness in Chinese medicine. Aust J Acupunct Chin Med 2008;3(2):13-17.
The term shenzhi means 'spirit-mind' and refers to the five spirits (shen, hun, po, yi, zhi) of early Chinese medical theorising. The theory of shenzhi provides a conceptual model that helps to explain Chinese medicine's perspective on human consciousness and body-mind physiology. Each of the five spirits (wushen) governs certain aspects of mentality and is closely related to sensory faculties, body tissues, visceral systems, and physiological substances. Orderly, integrated wushen activities provide the human organism with its distinctive array of mental and sensory abilities including intelligence, insight, attention, and memory. When these physiological activities and relationships are disrupted, a variety of common or more serious disorders may result. Broadly speaking, they are 'mind' or 'mental' disorders - shenzhi bing. We discuss some of these to illustrate the diagnostic relevance of shenzhi theory for the Chinese medical clinic today. Analysis of their signs and symptoms allows the practitioner to identify disordered wushen activities. A brief discussion of psychological classifications, pathomechanisms and treatment examples is included to help link the theory to contemporary clinical presentations.
KEYWORDS: Chinese medicine, consciousness, diagnosis, mental disorders, mind, neurosis, perception, physiology, psychology, psychosis.

[Back to Top]

Li XL, Yang AWH, Xue CCL, Wang QG. Using the nominal group technique to evaluate a Chinese medicine basic theory course for medical doctors: a case study. Aust J Acupunct Chin Med 2008;3(2):18-21.
Aims: To evaluate the course of Chinese Medicine Basic Theory (CMBT) delivered to medical doctors for course improvement using an established Nominal Group Technique (NGT). Methods: 14 Iranian students with medical backgrounds at Beijing University of Chinese Medicine completed the two NGT sessions. Results: 20 prioritised items were produced. Of these, clinical relevance, quality of teaching and learning activities and English language proficiency were considered the most important areas. Conclusion: The quality of the CMBT course might be improved when it is implemented with clinically relevant content knowledge, constructively aligned teaching and learning activities with quality delivery in the classroom.
KEYWORDS: nominal group technique, course evaluation, traditional Chinese medicine, education.

[Back to Top]

Kremer JZ, Deare JC. Acupuncture for the treatment of normal transit constipation: a case report. Aust J Acupunct Chin Med 2008;3(2):22-27.
Constipation has a high level of prevalence among older females in developed countries like Australia. This case report documents the acupuncture treatment of an 85-year-old female who presented to a student acupuncture clinic with the chief complaint of chronic constipation. The patient had experienced fifteen years of restricted bowel movements, with associated straining and sensation of incomplete evacuation. Her condition had not benefited substantially from Western medicine or consultation with a nutritionist. Secondary symptoms/complaints included neck pain, lower back pain, deteriorating eyesight and headache. Acupuncture was the primary intervention utilised in accordance with a number of classic point formulae, in combination with patient education to eliminate the herbal supplement and address dietary concerns. After weekly acupuncture treatments over eight weeks, the patient reported no longer experiencing constipation and this effect had lasted up until the time of writing. Similar results were attained for each of the patient's secondary complaints.
KEYWORDS: chronic constipation, normal transit constipation, neck injury, headache, purgatives, acupuncture, moxibustion.

[Back to Top]